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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 61-66

Clinical spectrum of cutaneous adverse drug reactions

1 Department of Dermatology, Lokmanya Tilak Medical College and Sion Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Consultant Dermatologist, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Abhishek Kumar Gupta
Department of Dermatology Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College and General Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijdd.ijdd_14_18

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Background: Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADRs) are common, comprising 10%–30% of all reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and its incidence in hospitalized patients is 2%–3%. Aims: The aim is to study the different clinical spectrum of CADRs in outpatient and inpatient and to find out the offending drug. Settings and Design: A prospective observational, nonrandomized hospital-based study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital over a period of 12 months. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting with suspected drug-related cutaneous lesions were included if drug identity could be ascertained. Clinical profiling was done. The severity of the reaction was assessed using modified Hartwig and Siegel ADR severity assessment scale. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using Stata Version 13. Results: Out of the total study population, most commonly observed cutaneous ADRs were fixed drug reaction in 28.75%, followed by maculopapular drug rash in 26.3%, and urticarial rash in 20.6%. Few less frequently observed CADRs were a lichenoid eruption, acneiform eruption, and baboon syndrome, generalized pruritus, pityriasis rosea, and vasculitis. Antimicrobials accounted for 37.5% of the total followed by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 25%, anti-epileptics 12.5%, and antifungal 6.25%. Anti-retroviral therapy contributed 3.125%, whereas 1.875% were due to Anti-Koch's therapy. About 28.1% of patients were taking monotherapy, whereas 71.9% of patients were received polytherapy. Conclusions: Wide spectrums of drug reaction were observed in this study. Sound knowledge of these drug eruptions may help the clinician to diagnose and effectively manage their cases. Polypharmacy is a well-known predictor of ADRs in children and adults.

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